Applied Clinical Informatics Applied Clinical Informatics aci de-de Thu, 17 Aug 17 13:36:43 +0200 Special Topic Interoperability and EHR: Combining openEHR, SNOMED, IHE, and Continua as approaches... Objectives: The main aims of the paper comprise the characterization and examination of the potential approaches regarding interoperability. This includes openEHR, SNOMED, IHE, and Continua as combined interoperability approaches, possibilities for their incorporation into the eHealth environment, and identification of the main success factors in the field, which are necessary for achieving required interoperability, and consequently, for the successful implementation of eHealth projects in general. Methods: The paper represents an in-depth analysis regarding the potential application of openEHR, SNOMED, IHE and Continua approaches in the development and implementation process of eHealth in Slovenia. The research method used is both exploratory and deductive in nature. The methodological framework is grounded on information retrieval with a special focus on research and charting of existing experience in the field, and sources, both electronic and written, which include interoperability concepts and related implementation issues. Results: The paper will try to answer the following inquiries that are complementing each other: 1. Scrutiny of the potential approaches, which could alleviate the pertinent interoperability issues in the Slovenian eHealth context. 2. Analyzing the possibilities (requirements) for their inclusion in the construction process for individual eHealth solutions. 3. Identification and charting the main success factors in the interoperability field that critically influence development and implementation of eHealth projects in an efficient manner. Conclusions: Provided insights and identified success factors could serve as a constituent of the strategic starting points for continuous integration of interoperability principles into the healthcare domain. Moreover, the general implementation of the identified success factors could facilitate better penetration of ICT into the healthcare environment and enable the eHealth-based transformation of the health system especially in the countries which are still in an early phase of eHealth planning and development and are often confronted with differing interests, requirements, and contending strategies.... M. Beštek (1, 2), D. Stanimirović (1) 27811 2017-08-08 14:36:02 Barriers to Achieving Economies of Scale in Analysis of EHR Data Signed in 2009, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act infused $28 billion of federal funds to accelerate adoption of electronic health records (EHRs). Yet, EHRs have produced mixed results and have even raised concern that the current technology ecosystem stifles innovation. We describe the development process and report initial outcomes of a chronic kidney disease analytics application that identifies high-risk patients for nephrology referral. The cost to validate and integrate the analytics application into clinical workflow was $217,138. Despite the success of the program, redundant development and validation efforts will require $38.8 million to scale the application across all multihospital systems in the nation. We address the shortcomings of current technology investments and distill insights from the technology industry. To yield a return on technology investments, we propose policy changes that address the underlying issues now being imposed on the system by an ineffective technology business model.... M. P. Sendak (1), S. Balu (1), K. A. Schulman (2, 3) 27810 2017-08-08 14:35:45 Long-term Patterns of Patient Portal Use for Pediatric Patients at an Academic Medical Center Background: Patient portal adoption has increased over the last two decades. Most research about patient portals has focused on adult populations in the primary care and medical specialty settings. Objective: We describe initial and long-term portal use by pediatric patients and their caregivers in a broadly deployed patient portal at an academic medical center. Methods: We analyzed portal usage for pediatric patients and their caregivers from 2008 to 2014. We recorded usage events with time stamps; user role defined as self, surrogate (i.e., parent or guardian), or delegate; and functions accessed. Usage events were grouped into sessions to calculate descriptive statistics by patient age, user role, and active use over time. Results: From 2008 to 2014, the number of portal accounts increased from 633 to 17,128. 15.9% of pediatric patients had their own account; 93.6%, a surrogate account; and 2.2% a delegate account. During the study period, 15,711 unique users initiated 493,753 sessions and accessed 1,491,237 functions. Most commonly used functions were secure messaging (accessed in 309,204 sessions; 62.6%); test results (174,239; 35.3%) and appointments (104,830; 21.2%). Function usage was greatest for patients ages 0-2 years (136,245 functions accessed; 23.1%) and 15-17 years (109,241;18.5%). Surrogate users conducted 83.2% of logins for adolescent patients. Portal accounts were actively used for < 1 year for 9,551 patients (55.8%), 1-2 years for 2,826 patients (16.5%), 2–3 years for 1,968 patients (11.5%) and over 3 years for 2,783 patients (16.3%). Conclusion: Pediatric patients and caregivers have avidly used messaging, test result, and appointment functions. The majority of access was done by surrogates. Adolescent portal usage increased with age. Most accounts for pediatric patients were only used actively for a few years, with peak usage for patients in early childhood and late adolescence.... B. Steitz (1), R. M. Cronin (1, 2, 3), S.E. Davis (1), E. Yan (4), G.P. Jackson (1, 3, 5) 27787 2017-08-01 20:24:48 Comparison of EHR-based diagnosis documentation locations to a gold standard for risk stratification... Objective: To measure variation among four different Electronic Health Record (EHR) system documentation locations versus ‘gold standard’ manual chart review for risk stratification in patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Methods: Adults seen in primary care with EHR evidence of at least one of 13 conditions were included. EHRs were manually reviewed to determine presence of active diagnoses, and risk scores were calculated using three different methodologies and five EHR documentation locations. Claims data were used to assess cost and utilization for the following year. Descriptive and diagnostic statistics were calculated for each EHR location. Criterion validity testing compared the gold standard verified diagnoses versus other EHR locations and risk scores in predicting future cost and utilization. Results: Nine hundred patients had 2,179 probable diagnoses. About 70% of the diagnoses from the EHR were verified by gold standard. For a subset of patients having baseline and prediction year data (n=750), modeling showed that the gold standard was the best predictor of outcomes on average for a subset of patients that had these data. However, combining all data sources together had nearly equivalent performance for prediction as the gold standard. Conclusions: EHR data locations were inaccurate 30% of the time, leading to improvement in overall modeling from a gold standard from chart review for individual diagnoses. However, the impact on identification of the highest risk patients was minor, and combining data from different EHR locations was equivalent to gold standard performance. The reviewer’s ability to identify a diagnosis as correct was influenced by a variety of factors, including completeness, temporality, and perceived accuracy of chart data.... S. Martin (1), J. Wagner (1), N. Lupulescu-Mann (2), K. Ramsey (3), A. Cohen (1), P. Graven (2), N. G. Weiskopf (1), D. A. Dorr (1) 27786 2017-08-01 20:00:16 Comparison of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) and standard telephone usage for consultations... Objective: Consultation, the process of an Emergency Physician seeking an opinion from other specialties, occurs frequently in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) usage for medical consultations on Emergency Department Length of Stay (ED LOS) and consult time. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the ED using allocation concealment over three months. Consultations requested in the ED were allocated into two groups: consultations requested via the secure messaging application and consultations requested by telephone as verbal. Results: A total of 439 consultations requested in the ED were assessed for eligibility and 345 were included in the final analysis: 173 consultations were conducted using secure messaging application and 172 consultations were conducted using standard telephone communications. The median ED LOS was 240 minutes (IQR:230-270, 95% CI:240 to 255.2) for patients in the secure messaging application group and 277 minutes (IQR:270-287.8, 95% CI:277 to 279) for patients in the telephone group. The median total ED LOS was significantly lower among consults conducted using Secure messaging application relative to consults conducted by telephone (median dif: -30, 95%CI:–37to-25, p<0.0001). The median consult time was 158 minutes (IQR:133 to 177.25, 95% CI:150 to 169) for patients in the Secure messaging application group and 170 minutes (IQR:165 to 188.5, 95% CI:170-171) for patients in the Telephone group (median dif: –12, 95%CI:-19 to-7,p<0.0001). Consultations completed without ED arrival was 61.8% in the secure messaging group and 33.1% in the Telephone group (dif: 28.7, 95% CI:48.3 to 66, p<0.001). Conclusions: Use of secure messaging application for consultations in the ED reduces the total ED LOS and consultation time. Consultation with secure messaging application eliminated more than half of in-person ED consultation visits.... U. Gulacti (1), U. Lok (1) 27737 2017-07-18 16:18:26 A Web-based Game for Teaching Facial Expressions to Schizophrenic Patients Background: Recognizing facial expressions is an important social skill. In some psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, loss of this skill may complicate the patient’s daily life. Prior research has shown that information technology may help to develop facial expression recognition skills through educational software and games. Objectives: To examine if a computer game designed for teaching facial expressions would improve facial expression recognition skills of patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We developed a website composed of eight serious games. Thirty-two patients were given a pre-test composed of 21 facial expression photographs. Eighteen patients were in the study group while 14 were in the control group. Patients in the study group were asked to play the games on the website. After a period of one month, we performed a post-test for all patients. Results: The median score of the correct answers was 17.5 in the control group whereas it was 16.5 in the study group (of 21) in pretest. The median post-test score was 18 in the control group (p=0.052) whereas it was 20 in the study group (p<0.001). Conclusions: Computer games may be used for the purpose of educating people who have difficulty in recognizing facial expressions.... K. Gülkesen (1), F. Isleyen (1), B. Cinemre (2), M. K. Samur (3), S. Sen Kaya (2), N. Zayim (1) 27719 2017-07-11 14:17:03 A Picture is Worth 1,000 Words Objective: To understand how clinicians utilize image uploading tools in a home grown electronic health records (EHR) system. Methods: A content analysis of patient notes containing non-radiological images from the EHR was conducted. Images from 4,000 random notes from July 1, 2009 – June 30, 2010 were reviewed and manually coded. Codes were assigned to four properties of the image: (1) image type, (2) role of image uploader (e.g. MD, NP, PA, RN), (3) practice type (e.g. internal medicine, dermatology, ophthalmology), and (4) image subject. Results: 3,815 images from image-containing notes stored in the EHR were reviewed and manually coded. Of those images, 32.8% were clinical and 66.2% were non-clinical. The most common types of the clinical images were photographs (38.0%), diagrams (19.1%), and scanned documents (14.4%). MDs uploaded 67.9% of clinical images, followed by RNs with 10.2%, and genetic counselors with 6.8%. Dermatology (34.9%), ophthalmology (16.1%), and general surgery (10.8%) uploaded the most clinical images. The content of clinical images referencing body parts varied, with 49.8% of those images focusing on the head and neck region, 15.3% focusing on the thorax, and 13.8% focusing on the lower extremities. Conclusion: The diversity of image types, content, and uploaders within a home grown EHR system reflected the versatility and importance of the image uploading tool. Understanding how users utilize image uploading tools in a clinical setting highlights important considerations for designing better EHR tools and the importance of interoperability between EHR systems and other health technology.... A. C. Ai (1), F. L. Maloney (2), T. Hickman (1), A. R. Wilcox (3), H. Ramelson (1, 4), A. Wright (1, 4) 27718 2017-07-11 14:12:34 Patient portal readiness among postpartum patients in a safety net setting Background: Maternity patients interact with the healthcare system over an approximately ten-month interval, requiring multiple visits, acquiring pregnancy-specific education, and sharing health information among providers. Many features of a web-based patient portal could help pregnant women manage their interactions with the healthcare system; however, it is unclear whether pregnant women in safety-net settings have the resources, skills or interest required for portal adoption. Objectives: In this study of postpartum patients in a safety net hospital, we aimed to: (1) determine if patients have the technical resources and skills to access a portal, (2) gain insight into their interest in health information, and (3) identify the perceived utility of portal features and potential barriers to adoption. Methods: We developed a structured questionnaire to collect demographics from postpartum patients and measure use of technology and the internet, self-reported literacy, interest in health information, awareness of portal functions, and perceived barriers to use. The questionnaire was administered in person to women in an inpatient setting. Results: Of the 100 participants surveyed, 95% reported routine internet use and 56% used it to search for health information. Most participants had never heard of a patient portal, yet 92% believed that the portal functions were important. The two most appealing functions were to check results and manage appointments. Conclusions: Most participants in this study have the required resources such as a device and familiarity with the internet to access a patient portal including an interest in interacting with a healthcare institution via electronic means. Pregnancy is a critical episode of care where active engagement with the healthcare system can influence outcomes. Healthcare systems and portal developers should consider ways to tailor a portal to address the specific health needs of a maternity population including those in a safety net setting.... D. Wieland (1), A. Gibeau (1), C. Dewey (1), M. Roshto (1), H. Frankel (2) 27707 2017-07-05 18:00:16 Electronic Health Record Alert-Related Workload as a Predictor of Burnout in Primary Care Providers Background: Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to increase physician workload. One EHR feature that contributes to increased workload is asynchronous alerts (also known as inbox notifications) related to test results, referral responses, medication refill requests, and messages from physicians and other health care professionals. This alert-related workload results in negative cognitive outcomes, but its effect on affective outcomes, such as burnout, has been understudied. Objectives: To examine EHR alert-related workload (both objective and subjective) as a predictor of burnout in primary care providers (PCPs), in order to ultimately inform interventions aimed at reducing burnout due to alert workload. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire and focus group of 16 PCPs at a large medical center in the southern United States. Results: Subjective, but not objective, alert workload was related to two of the three dimensions of burnout, including physical fatigue (p = 0.02) and cognitive weariness (p = 0.04), when controlling for organizational tenure. To reduce alert workload and subsequent burnout, participants indicated a desire to have protected time for alert management, fewer unnecessary alerts, and improvements to the EHR system. Conclusions: Burnout associated with alert workload may be in part due to subjective differences at an individual level, and not solely a function of the objective work environment. This suggests the need for both individual and organizational-level interventions to improve alert workload and subsequent burnout. Additional research should confirm these findings in larger, more representative samples.... M. E. Gregory (1, 2), E. Russo (1, 2), H. Singh (1, 2) 27706 2017-07-05 17:59:55 Domain Modeling and Application Development of an Archetype- and XML-based EHRS Background: Access to patient data within the hospital or between hospitals is still problematic since a variety of information systems is in use applying different vendor specific terminologies and underlying knowledge models. Beyond, the development of electronic health record systems (EHRSs) is time and resource consuming. Thus, there is a substantial need for a development strategy of standardized EHRSs. We are applying a reuse-oriented process model and demonstrate its feasibility and realization on a practical medical use case, which is an EHRS holding all relevant data arising in the context of treatment of tumors of the sella region. In this paper, we describe the development process and our practical experiences. Methods: Requirements towards the development of the EHRS were collected by interviews with a neurosurgeon and patient data analysis. For modelling of patient data, we selected openEHR as standard and exploited the software tools provided by the openEHR foundation. The patient information model forms the core of the development process, which comprises the EHR generation and the implementation of an EHRS architecture. Moreover, a reuse-oriented process model from the business domain was adapted to the development of the EHRS. Results: The reuse-oriented process model is a model for a suitable abstraction of both, modeling and development of an EHR centralized EHRS. The information modeling process resulted in 18 archetypes that were aggregated in a template and built the boilerplate of the model driven development. The EHRs and the EHRS were developed by openEHR and W3C standards, tightly supported by well-established XML techniques. The GUI of the final EHRS integrates and visualizes information from various examinations, medical reports, findings and laboratory test results. Conclusion: We conclude that the development of a standardized overarching EHR and an EHRS is feasible using openEHR and W3C standards, enabling a high degree of semantic interoperability. The standardized representation visualizes data and can in this way support the decision process of clinicians.... S. Kropf (1, 2), C. Chalopin (1), D. Lindner (3), K. Denecke (4) 27692 2017-06-28 14:22:15 Solving Interoperability in Translational Health Background: In the summer of 2016 an international group of biomedical and health informatics faculty and graduate students gathered for the 16th meeting of the International Partnership in Health Informatics Education (IPHIE) masterclass at the University of Utah campus in Salt Lake City, Utah. This international biomedical and health informatics workshop was created to share knowledge and explore issues in biomedical health informatics (BHI). Objective: The goal of this paper is to summarize the discussions of biomedical and health informatics graduate students who were asked to define interoperability, and make critical observations to gather insight on how to improve biomedical education. Methods: Students were assigned to one of four groups and asked to define interoperability and explore potential solutions to current problems of interoperability in health care. Results: We summarize here the student reports on the importance and possible solutions to the “interoperability problem” in biomedical informatics. Reports are provided from each of the four groups of highly qualified graduate students from leading BHI programs in the US, Europe and Asia. Conclusion: International workshops such as IPHIE provide a unique opportunity for graduate student learning and knowledge sharing. BHI faculty are encouraged to incorporate into their curriculum opportunities to exercise and strengthen student critical thinking to prepare our students for solving health informatics problems in the future.... A. M. Turner (1), J. C. Facelli (2), M. Jaspers (3), T. Wetter (4), D. Pfeifer (5), L. C. Gatewood (6), T. Adam (6), Y.-C. Li (7), M.-C. Lin (7), R. S. Evans (2), A. Beukenhorst (3), H. J. T. van Mens (3), E. Tensen (3), C. Bock (4), L. Fendrich (4), P. Seitz (4), J. Suleder (4), R. Aldelkhyyel (6), K. Bridgeman (6), Z. Hu (6), A. Sattler (6), S. Guo (7), I. Md. Mohaimenul (7), D. Anggraini Ningrum (7), H. Tung (7), J. Bian (2), J. M. Plasek (2), C. Rommel (2), J. Burke (1), H. Sohih (1) 27684 2017-06-21 13:12:05 Developing Mobile Clinical Decision Support for Nursing Home Staff Assessment of Urinary Tract... Background: Unique characteristics of nursing homes (NHs) contribute to high rates of inappropriate antibiotic use for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), a benign condition. A mobile clinical decision support system (CDSS) may support NH staff in differentiating urinary tract infections (UTI) from ASB and reducing antibiotic days. Objectives: We used Goal-Directed Design to: 1) Characterize information needs for UTI identification and management in NHs; 2) Develop UTI Decide, a mobile CDSS prototype informed by personas and scenarios of use constructed from Aim 1 findings; 3) Evaluate the UTI Decide prototype with NH staff. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with providers and nurses in NHs in Denver, Colorado (n= 24). Qualitative descriptive analysis was applied to focus group transcripts to identify information needs and themes related to mobile clinical decision support for UTI identification and management. Personas representing typical end users were developed; typical clinical context scenarios were constructed using information needs as goals. Usability testing was performed using cognitive walk-throughs and a think-aloud protocol. Results: Four information needs were identified including guidance regarding resident assessment; communication with providers; care planning; and urine culture interpretation. Design of a web-based application incorporating a published decision support algorithm for evidence-based UTI diagnoses proceeded with a focus on nursing information needs during resident assessment and communication with providers. Certified nursing assistant (CNA) and registered nurse (RN) personas were constructed in 4 context scenarios with associated key path scenarios. After field testing, a high fidelity prototype of UTI Decide was completed and evaluated by potential end users. Design recommendations and content recommendations were elicited. Conclusions: Goal-Directed Design informed the development of a mobile CDSS supporting participant-identified information needs for UTI assessment and communication in NHs. Future work will include iterative deployment and evaluation of UTI Decide in NHs to decrease inappropriate use of antibiotics for suspected UTI.... W. Jones (1), C. Drake (1), D. Mack (1), B. Reeder (2), B. Trautner (3), H. Wald (1) 27683 2017-06-21 13:09:25 The Obesity Epidemic and the Potential of Augmented Reality M. K. Poku (1), N. A. Behkami (2), D. W. Bates (3, 4) 27645 2017-06-14 10:55:28 Development of Multivariable Models to Predict and Benchmark Transfusion in Elective Surgery... Background: Blood transfusion is a highly prevalent procedure in hospitalized patients and in some clinical scenarios it has lifesaving potential. However, in most cases transfusion is administered to hemodynamically stable patients with no benefit, but increased odds of adverse patient outcomes and substantial direct and indirect cost. Therefore, the concept of Patient Blood Management has increasingly gained importance to pre-empt and reduce transfusion and to identify the optimal transfusion volume for an individual patient when transfusion is indicated. Objectives: It was our aim to describe, how predictive modeling and machine learning tools applied on pre-operative data can be used to predict the amount of red blood cells to be transfused during surgery and to prospectively optimize blood ordering schedules. In addition, the data derived from the predictive models should be used to benchmark different hospitals concerning their blood transfusion patterns. Methods: 6,530 case records obtained for elective surgeries from 16 centers taking part in two studies conducted in 2004–2005 and 2009–2010 were analyzed. Transfused red blood cell volume was predicted using random forests. Separate models were trained for overall data, for each center and for each of the two studies. Important characteristics of different models were compared with one another. Results: Our results indicate that predictive modeling applied prior surgery can predict the transfused volume of red blood cells more accurately (correlation coefficient cc = 0.61) than state of the art algorithms (cc = 0.39). We found significantly different patterns of feature importance a) in different hospitals and b) between study 1 and study 2. Conclusion: We conclude that predictive modeling can be used to benchmark the importance of different features on the models derived with data from different hospitals. This might help to optimize crucial processes in a specific hospital, even in other scenarios beyond Patient Blood Management.... D. Hayn (1), K. Kreiner (1), H. Ebner (1), P. Kastner (1), N. Breznik (1), A. Rzepka (1), A. Hofmann (2), H. Gombotz (3), G. Schreier (1) 27644 2017-06-14 10:55:18 A FHIR Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Interface for Platelet Transfusion Support Platelet transfusions are a cornerstone of therapy for patients who develop thrombocytopenia while undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Many patients who develop Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness (PTR) require HLA-matched platelets. Identifying these patients early could lead to better utilization of platelets as well as increased platelet counts. We built a SMART on FHIR visualization tool to aid the oncology, blood bank, and blood donor center teams in identifying these patients by showing trends in thrombocytopenia along with a computer generated calculated Panel Reactive Antibody (cPRA) level. To do this, we required a FHIR interface to our HLA database. We describe our methods and outcome for constructing this FHIR interface, as well as the architecture and data flow of HLA data from its proprietary database to the SMART on FHIR environment and application database along with RESTful cPRA web service calculator. Future work will evaluate the clinical impact of this platelet visualization tool and overall success of our FHIR implementation.... W. J. Gordon (1, 2, 3), J. Baronas (4), W. J. Lane (4, 3) 27603 2017-06-07 11:50:13 An Analysis of Patient Safety Incident Reports Associated with Electronic Health Record... Background: With the widespread use of electronic health records (EHRs) for many clinical tasks, interoperability with other health information technology (health IT) is critical for the effective delivery of care. While it is generally recognized that poor interoperability negatively impacts patient care, little is known about the specific patient safety implications. Understanding the patient safety implications will help prioritize interoperability efforts around architectures and standards. Objectives: Our objectives were to (1) identify patient safety incident reports that reflect EHR interoperability challenges with other health IT, and (2) perform a detailed analysis of these reports to understand the health IT systems involved, the clinical care processes impacted, whether the incident occurred within or between provider organizations, and the reported severity of the patient safety events. Methods: From a database of 1.735 million patient safety event (PSE) reports spanning multiple provider organizations, 2625 reports that were indicated as being health IT related by the event reporter were reviewed to identify EHR interoperability related reports. Through a rigorous coding process 209 EHR interoperability related events were identified and coded. Results: The majority of EHR interoperability PSE reports involved interfacing with pharmacy systems (i.e. medication related), followed by laboratory, and radiology. Most of the interoperability challenges in these clinical areas were associated with the EHR receiving information from other health IT systems as opposed to the EHR sending information to other systems. The majority of EHR interoperability challenges were within a provider organization and while many of the safety events reached the patient, only a few resulted in patient harm. Conclusions: Interoperability efforts should prioritize systems in pharmacy, laboratory, and radiology. Providers should recognize the need to improve EHRs interfacing with other health IT systems within their own organization.... K. T. Adams (1), J. L. Howe (1), A. Fong (1), J. S. Puthumana (1), K. M. Kellogg (1, 3), M. Gaunt (4), R. M. Ratwani (1, 3) 27602 2017-06-07 11:47:32 The effects of natural language processing on cross-institutional portability of influenza case... Objectives: This study evaluates the accuracy and portability of a natural language processing (NLP) tool for extracting clinical findings of influenza from clinical notes across two large healthcare systems. Effectiveness is evaluated on how well NLP supports downstream influenza case-detection for disease surveillance. Methods: We independently developed two NLP parsers, one at Intermountain Healthcare (IH) in Utah and the other at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) using local clinical notes from emergency department (ED) encounters of influenza. We measured NLP parser performance for the presence and absence of 70 clinical findings indicative of influenza. We then developed Bayesian network models from NLP processed reports and tested their ability to discriminate among cases of (1) influenza, (2) non-influenza influenza-like illness (NI-ILI), and (3) ‘other’ diagnosis. Results: On Intermountain Healthcare reports, recall and precision of the IH NLP parser were 0.71 and 0.75, respectively, and UPMC NLP parser, 0.67 and 0.79. On University of Pittsburgh Medical Center reports, recall and precision of the UPMC NLP parser were 0.73 and 0.80, respectively, and IH NLP parser, 0.53 and 0.80. Bayesian case-detection performance measured by AUROC for influenza versus non-influenza on Intermountain Healthcare cases was 0.93 (using IH NLP parser) and 0.93 (using UPMC NLP parser). Case-detection on University of Pittsburgh Medical Center cases was 0.95 (using UPMC NLP parser) and 0.83 (using IH NLP parser). For influenza versus NI-ILI on Intermountain Healthcare cases performance was 0.70 (using IH NLP parser) and 0.76 (using UPMC NLP parser). On University of Pisstburgh Medical Center cases, 0.76 (using UPMC NLP parser) and 0.65 (using IH NLP parser). Conclusion: In all but one instance (influenza versus NI-ILI using IH cases), local parsers were more effective at supporting case-detection although performances of non-local parsers were reasonable.... J. P. Ferraro (1, 2), Y. Ye (3, 4), P. H. Gesteland (1, 5), P. J. Haug (1, 2), F. R. Tsui (3, 4), G. F. Cooper (3), R. Van Bree (2), T. Ginter (6), A. J. Nowalk (7), M. Wagner (3, 4) 27575 2017-05-31 11:08:06 Rapid Adjustment of Clinical Decision Support in Response to Updated Recommendations for Palivizumab... Background: Palivizumab is effective at reducing hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus among high-risk children, but is indicated for a small population. Identification of patients eligible to receive palivizumab is labor-intensive and error-prone. To support patient identification we developed Clinical Decision Support (CDS) based on published recommendations in 2012. This CDS was developed using a systematic process, which directly linked computer code to a recommendation’s narrative text. In 2014, updated recommendations were published, which changed several key criteria used to determine eligible patients. Objective: Assess the effort required to update CDS in response to new palivizumab recommendations and identify factors that impacted these efforts. Methods: We reviewed the updated American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement from Aug 2014 and identified areas of divergence from the prior publication. We modified the CDS to account for each difference. We recorded time spent on each activity to approximate the total effort required to update the CDS. Results: Of the 15 recommendations in the initial policy statement, 7 required updating. The CDS update was completed in 11 person-hours. Comparison of old and new recommendations was facilitated by the AAP policy statement structure and required 3 hours. Validation of the revised logic required 2 hours by a clinical domain expert. An informaticist required 3 hours to update and test the CDS. This included adding 24 lines and deleting 37 lines of code. Updating relevant data queries took an additional 3 hours and involved 10 edits. Conclusion: We quickly adapted CDS in response to changes in recommendations for palivizumab administration. The consistent AAP policy statement structure and the link we developed between these statements and the CDS rules facilitated our efforts. We recommend that CDS implementers establish linkages between published narrative recommendations and their executable rules to facilitate maintenance efforts.... J. Michel (1, 2), L. H. Utidjian (1, 2), D. Karavite (2), A. Hogan (1), M. J. Ramos (2), J. Miller (2), R. N. Shiffman (2, 3), R. W. Grundmeier (1, 2) 27574 2017-05-31 10:58:07 Improving Medication Adherence with Two-way Short Message Service Reminders in Sickle Cell Disease... Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a childhood and adult disease that primarily affects African Americans, characterized by life threatening sequelae mitigated by medications. One-way and two-way short message service (SMS) medication reminders have differing efficacy in chronic diseases. There is limited literature about SMS medication reminders in SCD. Objective: The goal of this study was to test the feasibility, defined by recruitment/acceptance, retention/attrition, and technology utilization, of two-way SMS medication reminders in individuals with SCD with and without asthma. Materials and Methods: Participants were randomly allocated to standard care or reminders. Two-way SMS reminders were automated using Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) for hydroxyurea, fluticasone, budesonide and montelukast. Adherence was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8). Asthma control was assessed using the Childhood and Adult-Asthma Control Tests (ACT). Participants were enrolled 28 to 60 days with a common termination date. Results: The recruitment rate was 95% (47/49) and 82.9% completed the study. Among the 47 study participants enrolled, 51.1% were male, 61.7% were adults, median age was 20 (range: 3 to 59), and 98% were African Americans. Of the 26 participants receiving messages, 20% responded on over 95% of the days and usage varied with an average response rate of 33%, ranging from 21% to 46%. Medication adherence scores improved significantly in the intervention group (3.42 before, 5.46 after; p=0.002), but not in the control group (3.90 before, 4.75 after; p=0.080). Childhood-ACT scores improved in the intervention group (19.20 before, 24.25 after). Adult-ACT scores within the intervention arm were unchanged (21.0 before, 22.0 after. ACT scores did not improve significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility for two-way SMS medication reminders to improve medication adherence in a high-risk population where daily medication adherence is critical to health outcomes and quality of life.... Brandi M. Pernell (1, 2), M. R. DeBaun (1), K. Becker (3), M. Rodeghier (4), V. Bryant (1), R. M. Cronin (5) 27561 2017-05-24 07:44:23 Insulin Bolus Calculator in a Pediatric Hospital Background: Insulin dosing in hospitalized pediatric patients is challenging and requires dosing to be matched with the specific clinical and nutritional circumstances. We implemented a customized subcutaneous insulin bolus dose calculator tool integrated with the electronic health record to improve patient care. Here we describe this tool, its utilization and safety, and assess user satisfaction and perceptions of the tool. Methods: Blood glucose results for all patients who received insulin with and without the calculator tool were compared to assess safety. To assess user perceptions and satisfaction, a survey was sent to all identified users who interacted with the tool during the period from May 2015 to the end of November 2015. Survey responses were summarized, mean user satisfaction calculated, and correlation of Likert scale items with overall satisfaction assessed. Results: Hypoglycemia rates (2.2% and 2.9%, p = 0.17) and severe hypoglycemia rates (0.04% and 0.1%, p = 0.21) were similar for the groups that received insulin with and without the calculator tool. Overall satisfaction for all survey respondents was high (4.05, SD = 0.83). Physicians indicated a slightly higher satisfaction than nurses (4.33 versus 3.94, p = 0.04). User agreement with improvement of quality of care showed the highest correlation with overall satisfaction (r = 0.80, 95% CI 0.7 – 0.87). Conclusion: Implementation of an insulin calculator tool streamlined ordering and administration of insulin in a pediatric academic institution while maintaining patient safety. Users indicated high overall satisfaction with the tool.... M. B. Ateya (1), R. Aiyagari (2), C. Moran (3), K. Singer (3) 27560 2017-05-24 07:43:20 Open Access: Advancing the integration of hospital IT Background: Planning and controlling surgical operations hugely impacts upon productivity, patient safety, and surgeons’ careers. Established, specialized software for this task is being increasingly replaced by “Operating Room (OR)-modules” appended to enterprise-wide resource planning (ERP) systems. As a result, usability problems are re-emerging and require developers’ attention. Objective: Systematic evaluation of the functionality and social repercussions of a global, market-leading IT business control system (SAP R3, Germany), adapted for real-time OR process steering. Methods: Field study involving document analyses, interviews, and a 73-item survey addressed to 77 qualified (> 1-year system experience) senior planning executives (end users; “planners”) working in surgical departments of university hospitals. Results: Planners reported that 57% of electronic operation requests contained contradictory information. Key screens contained clinically irrelevant areas (36 +/- 29%). Compared to the legacy system, users reported either no improvements or worse performance, in regard to co-ordination of OR stakeholders, intra-day program changes, and safety. Planners concluded that the ERP-planning module was “non-intuitive” (66%), increased planning work (56%, p=0.002), and did not impact upon either organizational mishap spectrum or frequency. Interviews evidenced intra-institutional power shifts due to increased system complexity. Planners resented e.g. a trend towards increased personal culpability for mishap. Conclusions: Highly complex enterprise system extensions may not be directly suited to specific process steering tasks in a high risk/low error-environment like the OR. In view of surgeons’ high primary task load, the repeated call for simpler IT is an imperative for ERP extensions. System design should consider a) that current OR IT suffers from an input limitation regarding planning-relevant real-time data, and b) that there are social processes that strongly affect planning and particularly ERP use beyond algorithms. Real improvement of clinical IT tools requires their independent evaluation according to standards developed for pharmaceutical subjects.... C. Engelmann (1), D. Ametowobla (2) 27543 2017-05-17 08:54:00 A hospital-wide transition from paper to digital problem-oriented clinical notes Objectives: To evaluate the use, usability, and physician satisfaction of a locally developed problem-oriented clinical notes application that replaced paper-based records in a large Dutch university medical center. Methods: Using a clinical notes database and an application event log file and a cross-sectional survey of usability, authors retrospectively analyzed system usage for medical specialties, users, and patients over 4 years. A standardized questionnaire measured usability. Authors analyzed the effects of sex, age, professional experience, training hours, and medical specialty on user satisfaction via univariate analysis of variance. Authors also examined the correlation between user satisfaction in relation to users’ intensity of use of the application. Results: In total 1,793 physicians used the application to record progress notes for 219,755 patients. The overall satisfaction score was 3.2 on a scale from 1 (highly dissatisfied) to 5 (highly satisfied). A statistically significant difference occurred in satisfaction by medical specialty, but no statistically significant differences in satisfaction took place by sex, age, professional experience, or training hours. Intensity of system use did not correlate with physician satisfaction. Conclusions: By two years after the start of the implementation, all medical specialties utilized the clinical notes application. User satisfaction was neutral (3.2 on a 1–5 scale). Authors believe that the significant factors facilitating this transition mirrored success factors reported by other groups: a generic, consistent, and transparent design of the application; intensive collaboration; continuous monitoring; and an incremental rollout.... F. H. J. M. Cillessen (1), P. F. de Vries Robbé (1), M. C. J. Biermans (1) 27542 2017-05-17 08:41:51 The Effects of Medication Alerts on Prescriber Response in a Pediatric Hospital Objective: More than 70% of hospitals in the United States have electronic health records (EHRs). Clinical decision support (CDS) presents clinicians with electronic alerts during the course of patient care; however, alert fatigue can influence a provider’s response to any EHR alert. The primary goal was to evaluate the effects of alert burden on user response to the alerts. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of medication alerts over a 24-month period (1/2013–12/2014) in a large pediatric academic medical center. The institutional review board approved this study. The primary outcome measure was alert salience, a measure of whether or not the prescriber took any corrective action on the order that generated an alert. We estimated the ideal number of alerts to maximize salience. Salience rates were examined for providers at each training level, by day of week, and time of day through logistic regressions. Results: While salience never exceeded 38%, 49 alerts/day were associated with maximal salience in our dataset. The time of day an order was placed was associated with alert salience (maximal salience 2am). The day of the week was also associated with alert salience (maximal salience on Wednesday). Provider role did not have an impact on salience. Conclusion: Alert burden plays a role in influencing provider response to medication alerts. An increased number of alerts a provider saw during a one-day period did not directly lead to decreased response to alerts. Given the multiple factors influencing the response to alerts, efforts focused solely on burden are not likely to be effective.... J. W. Dexheimer (1, 2), E. S. Kirkendall (2, 3, 4, 5), M. Kouril (2), P. A. Hagedorn (3, 4), T. Minich (3, 6), L. L. Duan (7), M. Mahdi (4), R. Szczesniak (8, 9), S. A. Spooner (2, 3, 4) 27512 2017-05-10 08:14:32 Towards Usable E-Health Background: The use of e-health can lead to several positive outcomes. However, the potential for e-health to improve healthcare is partially dependent on its ease of use. In order to determine the usability for any technology, rigorously developed and appropriate measures must be chosen. Objectives: To identify psychometrically tested questionnaires that measure usability of e-health tools, and to appraise their generalizability, attributes coverage, and quality. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured usability of e-health tools using four databases (Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, and HAPI). Non-primary research, studies that did not report measures, studies with children or people with cognitive limitations, and studies about assistive devices or medical equipment were systematically excluded. Two authors independently extracted information including: questionnaire name, number of questions, scoring method, item generation, and psychometrics using a data extraction tool with pre-established categories and a quality appraisal scoring table. Results: Using a broad search strategy, 5,558 potentially relevant papers were identified. After removing duplicates and applying exclusion criteria, 35 articles remained that used 15 unique questionnaires. From the 15 questionnaires, only 5 were general enough to be used across studies. Usability attributes covered by the questionnaires were: learnability (15), efficiency (12), and satisfaction (11). Memorability (1) was the least covered attribute. Quality appraisal showed that face/content (14) and construct (7) validity were the most frequent types of validity assessed. All questionnaires reported reliability measurement. Some questionnaires scored low in the quality appraisal for the following reasons: limited validity testing (7), small sample size (3), no reporting of user centeredness (9) or feasibility estimates of time, effort, and expense (7). Conclusions: Existing questionnaires provide a foundation for research on e-health usability. However, future research is needed to broaden the coverage of the usability attributes and psychometric properties of the available questionnaires.... V. E. C. Sousa (1), K. Dunn Lopez (1) 27511 2017-05-10 08:08:31 Advanced 3D movement analysis algorithms for robust functional capacity assessment Objectives: We developed a novel system for in home functional capacities assessment in frail older adults by analyzing the Timed Up and Go movements. This system aims to follow the older people evolution, potentially allowing a forward detection of motor decompensation in order to trigger the implementation of rehabilitation. However, the pre-experimentations conducted on the ground, in different environments, revealed some problems which were related to KinectTM operation. Hence, the aim of this actual study is to develop methods to resolve these problems. Methods: Using the KinectTM sensor, we analyze the Timed Up and Go test movements by measuring nine spatio-temporal parameters, identified from the literature. We propose a video processing chain to improve the robustness of the analysis of the various test phases: automatic detection of the sitting posture, patient detection and three body joints extraction. We introduce a realistic database and a set of descriptors for sitting posture recognition. In addition, a new method for skin detection is implemented to facilitate the patient extraction and head detection. 94 experiments were conducted to assess the robustness of the sitting posture detection and the three joints extraction regarding condition changes. Results: The results showed good performance of the proposed video processing chain: the global error of the sitting posture detection was 0.67%. The success rate of the trunk angle calculation was 96.42%. These results show the reliability of the proposed chain, which increases the robustness of the automatic analysis of the Timed Up and Go. Conclusions: The system shows good measurements reliability and generates a note reflecting the patient functional level that showed a good correlation with 4 clinical tests commonly used. We suggest that it is interesting to use this system to detect impairment of motor planning processes.... A. Hassani (1), A. Kubicki (2), F. Mourey (3, 4), F. Yang (1) 27510 2017-05-10 08:04:10